2.056 × 10–4M. The indicator used, phenolphthalein is a weak acid that responds to additions or subtractions of the hydrogen ion so it was proper that the unknown potassium hydrogen phthalate was diluted with a neutral diluents. A standard solution has an accurately known concentration and for this experiment sodium hydroxide was standardized with a primary standard acid, potassium hydrogen phthalate. absorbed water, etc. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! All work is written to order. A standard solution must be pure to a measureable degree. 1. For this lab, the unknown potassium hydrogen phthalate sample was titrated with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. As with all laboratory experiments, there are sources of error in these titrations. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Another source of systematic error is reagent purity. In the standardization process, three samples of known potassium hydrogen phthalate underwent titrations by the prepared 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. This error, along with the two previously stated, are, more likely than not, present in both mine and my partner’s results. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Since carbonate ions are insoluble in concentrated sodium hydroxide so a 50% stock solution of sodium hydroxide was used.1 After cooling the boiled water about 3 mL of 50% sodium hydroxide was added to form a 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. The unknown KHP sample used was #52 LO so about 3.0 g samples were used in titrations. 2Mohrig, J.M., Hammond, C.N., Schatz, P.F. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! s1 = (0.09011 – 0.09015)2 + (0.09002 – 0.09015)2+(0.09015 – 0.09015)2+(0.09032 – 0.09015)2 4–1, As shown, the standard deviation for data set 1 is larger than that of data set 2. That step is necessary because Sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide react in a solution to form an unwanted carbonate ion. Company Registration No: 4964706. Using that solution, the average concentration of potassium hydrogen phthalate was found to be 27.99% in the #52 LO unknown solid. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Orders placed without a payment will have the discount removed, but continue as normal. 1 Laverman, L.E. Similar step was taken to find the concentrations of unknown potassium hydrogen phthalate. A stir bar was used during titration which could hamper with the endpoint noticed by a slight pink indication that lasts about thirty seconds so during the experiment the titration was put to an end if the pink lasted about 10 seconds. Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution with Unknown Concentration by Titration of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) Results Mass KHP (± 0.0 This discrepancy could account for inaccuracy in the measurements and calculations in one data set, as well as differences between two data sets. Random errors are also present; these include reagent evaporation and contamination, and variations in volumetric glassware and measuring instruments due to variations in temperature. MW (KHP) g of KHP Moles KHP = 2. This is done using Equation 5 as shown below. Through a set of four titrations of KHP with a NaOH solution of unknown concentration, we were able to deduce the concentration of this NaOH solution. This NaOH solution will be used in further experiments, thus it is very important to deduce its concentration. 0.09015 ±2.056 × 10–4M, , meaning that we can be 95% sure that the “true” value for the concentration of the NaOH solution used in the titrations is within Due to the simple nature of the experiment it was crucial to have accurate measurements and clean equipments. Perhaps a better result could have been attained if equal amounts of unknown mass were used for each trial. The volumetric analysis allows for the calculation of the unknown amount or concentration by a reaction with a known amount of reagent. The average molarity of sodium hydroxide calculated from step before was multiplied by the volume of the titrating solution added and converted into mols of potassium hydrogen phthalate in the sample. Of known potassium hydrogen phthalate the # 52 LO so about 3.0 g samples used! Orders with a 14 day or longer delivery removed, but continue as normal data Yu-Ting... 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