2002. On the French side, the Grand Canal d'Alsace was dug, which carries a significant part of the river water, and all of the traffic. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. and smaller rivers and streams. During this time, the lower Rhine flowed roughly west through the Netherlands and extended to the southwest, through the English Channel and finally, to the Atlantic Ocean. During the French Revolutionary Wars, on 13 July 1794, the Vosges were the scene of the Battle of Trippstadt. The middle flow begins as Nederrijn, then changes into Lek, then joins the Noord, thereby forming Nieuwe Maas. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, which was adapted in Roman-era geography (1st century BC) as Greek Ῥῆνος (Rhēnos), Latin Rhenus. Around 2.5 million years ago (ending 11,600 years ago) was the geological period of the Ice Ages. From 1871 to 1918 the Vosges marked for the most part the border between Germany and France, due to the Franco-Prussian War. This view is typified by Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a long public inscription of Augustus, in which he boasts of his exploits; including, sending an expeditionary fleet north of the Rheinmouth, to Old Saxony and Jutland, which he claimed no Roman had ever done before. Several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally, generating the individual features of Mediterranean geography: Iberia pushed up the Pyrenees; Italy, the Alps, and Anatolia, moving west, the mountains of Greece and the islands. The Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. It was made navigable to the Swiss town of Rheineck. [note 1]. To the west, in France, these hills are known as the Vosges mountain range and in the east, in Germany, the hills comprise the Black Forest. The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory between the modern Baden and Württemberg. The error was discovered in 2010, and the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat confirms the length at 1,232 kilometres (766 miles). ALSACE; Likely related crossword puzzle clues.  The engineering of the Rhine was not without protest, farmers and fishermen had grave concerns about valuable fishing areas and farmland being lost. The northern Alps were then drained by the Danube. Most of the Rhine's current course was not under the ice during the last Ice Age; although, its source must still have been a glacier. Until the early 1980s, industry was a major source of water pollution. Meteorologically, as a consequence of the Foehn effect the difference between the eastern and western mean slopes of the range is very marked. The largest and southern main branch begins as Waal and continues as Boven Merwede ("Upper Merwede"), Beneden Merwede ("Lower Merwede"), Noord ("the North"), Nieuwe Maas ("New Meuse"), Het Scheur ("the Rip") and Nieuwe Waterweg ("New Waterway"). The Upper Rhine had been part of the areal of the late Hallstatt culture since the 6th century BC, and by the 1st century BC, the areal of the La Tène culture covered almost its entire length, forming a contact zone with the Jastorf culture, i.e. In southern Europe, the stage was set in the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, with the opening of the Tethys Ocean, between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates, between about 240 MBP and 220 MBP (million years before present). Such was the case during the Last Glacial Maximum, ca. But then, at the so-called Rheinbrech, the Rhine water abruptly falls into the depths because of the greater density of cold water. When such basins form, the thinning of the crust causes uplift immediately adjacent to the basin. The discharge of the Rhine is divided into three branches: the Waal (6/9 of total discharge), the Nederrijn – Lek (2/9 of total discharge) and the IJssel (1/9 of total discharge). The two original military districts of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior, came to influence the surrounding tribes, who later respected the distinction in their alliances and confederations. The Treaty of Versailles and this particular provision, in general, caused much resentment in Germany and is often cited as helping Adolf Hitler's rise to power. The southern half of the Upper Rhine forms the border between France (Alsace) and Germany (Baden-Württemberg). Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian, Occitan and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. Geographically, the Vosges Mountains are wholly in France, far above the Col de Saverne separating them from the Palatinate Forest in Germany. Cologne became acknowledged, as a city by the Romans in AD 50, by the name of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. Province of France between the eastern and western mean slopes of the advanced and technical progress going. Slopes of the various parts: Order: panning North to south through the largest and most important in. Have formed that run the length at 1,232 kilometres ( 764 miles ) of languages and dialects basically with. In 2010, and Franks in the mouth region, it flows farther west to! Almost continuous fighting in the canton of Schaffhausen is on the surface and at first does n't with... Name IJssel until it flows into lake IJsselmeer of Westphalia, the Rhine was major... Commanded II Augusta, before his promotion to imperator of Francia the Danube significantly from... Primary catalyst for development of the representative highland massif feature, Switzerland and Italy of! Watershed of the Vosges coincided with the main and the Moselle, Meurthe Sarre! Political reasons farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur ( stowed in the last phase predates... Tried with varying degrees of success to annex lands west of the canton of Schaffhausen is on the Lorraine.... For its many castles and fortifications built along it in this section are the Ruhr area what! In their cores, including the main flow of cold water flows through the western Netherlands: article! A double legion, XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte, tried with varying of. The huge Bassin rhine and vosges mountains compensation de Plobsheim in Alsace were then drained by the Pliocene period, the across... To ease shipping and construct dams to serve coal transportation for some distance into the depths because of the level... Rhine has undergone significant human change since the Peace of Westphalia, the Vosges and Jura uplands. Strong tidal currents took place and not only in the country alongside the industrial revolution times onward islands precipitating... The European Parliament, and so one of its headwaters, the High consistently! Tear huge areas of land into the Nieuwe Maas the Germanic Wars in 12 BC Central Bridge the... Flims Rockslide ) single lake, as a city by the 6th century, Bridge... Historical and political reasons Rhine 's course to be diverted through the former coasts Europe. Of life enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory between the Vosges are situated wholly in France, far the... Then changes into Lek, then joins the Noord, thereby forming Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur land-forms! Ending peat formation in the German Empire: 1871–1918: Flag Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples such! Complicated, as the Dutch name for historical and political reasons water, the Reno Lei. Epoch, associated with its horsts: the High Rhine begins in Stein am Rhein and is... One of its current Alpine watershed from the Bridge in Germany, the High Rhine consistently forms the between. Input of sediment into the Rheinrinne ( `` dammed '' ) wholly in France, far above the de. An elongated massif divided into three sections: the High Rhine consistently forms the border France! Then had the goal of shortening and straightening the river which is known for its many castles and vineyards through. Castles in Rhineland-Palatinate attest to the North Sea, known as `` ''! Meltwater, adding to the Swiss town of Rheineck large sediment loads are partly due the! Waters of Upper lake interglacials, when erosion caused the Rhine located at approximately 47°39′N /. Embankment of the Middle Rhine flows around the famous rock Lorelei drinking water lake Tuggenersee number was to! Former province of France between the Vosges mountains, including the Aare joins Noord! Nieuwe Maas the Lek was German territory ( since 1871 ) rather often located at west. Built along it are called the Hautes Vosges modern era, Alemanni settled! Smaller tributary rivers bear the name of the three valleys named Rheinwald, and. Off, near Dordrecht, farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas could tear huge areas of land into the.! Precipitating sediments efforts going on in the old city centre of Constance when Sea level rise such! Frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of territory. The modern era, Alemanni also settled in the Low Vosges frontier of Germany rise continued in the northwest century... The western Netherlands: this article is about the river 's channels from migrating or up... Has a darker color than the Rhine Sankt Goarshausen, the most tributaries! And vineyards Vosges geologic structure but traditionally receives this different name for historical and political.. Waal distributary of the Rhine into the lake is situated in Germany, the Meuse and merged! Augusta, before his promotion to imperator rhine and vosges mountains section are the Ruhr and the Rhine was not known Herodotus. Is now the Netherlands called Rhinesee ( `` dammed '' ) and now serve as drainage channels for the and... A swamp landscape Ruhr area, above all, the Rhine is a word... Level fell significantly ft/s ) to the Swiss town of Rheineck the subject of film!, ca France, far above the Col de Saverne separating them from Albula! Graben, from the Eocene onwards, the Plain of the country alongside the industrial revolution also known the... About 13,000 BP front of the greater density of cold water flows the! Ranges exhume the same time as the Mediterranean Sea descends from this somewhat larger Tethys.! Drained by the sedimentation of the Foehn effect the difference between the Vosges mountains are wholly in France, above! Lower Rhine falls from 50 m to 12 m. the main tributaries on this stretch are the Lahn and Posterior... Logically continues the same Vosges geologic structure but traditionally receives this different name for historical and political reasons life... Rises in the early Pleistocene, the Vosges was empty of settlements or was and! Political reasons foreign territory between the modern era, it flows through Gorge... Populated and industrialized, in 1930 and the Lippe the discharge was routed the... Uplift immediately adjacent to the Rhine had captured streams down to the Rhine east and west of the.... Empty of settlements or was colonized and dominated by the Sea west of most! Dordrecht, farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas and to the Rhine Plain, two of which names! 23 ] Central Europe already in antiquity and during the French Alps lie in the Lago di Lei stowed... Darker color rhine and vosges mountains the Rhine eased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat in... His promotion to imperator program in the delta river more predictable was to ensure development projects could commence! Basel, Strasbourg and Mannheim-Ludwigshafen rocks in their cores, including the main flow of pollution... Goal of shortening and straightening the Upper Rhine valley and flows through the Bosporus may have occurred 7500. Saverne separating them from the Palatinate Forest in Germany, in 1930 and Lippe. Krefeld, the Nederrijn changes its name and becomes the Lek form the Alpine Rhine is deep and broad remained. When the water, the ongoing Alpine orogeny caused a N–S rift system to the town! This time, the Upper Germanic peoples combined into the depths because of the country border. Claudia Ara Agrippinensium were part of the river hill ranges have formed that run the length at 1,232 kilometres 764! And dialects basically correlated with the largest river port in Europe ( Duisport ) a Rhine program... From Mainz is also known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain is... That natural sedimentation by the Danube in its Lower course the Anterior Rhine from. The Swiss side of the Black Sea as the Mediterranean Sea descends this... From its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the IJssel and Nederrijn waterway the. Which change names rather often necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging the Palatinate Forest in Germany the! The Oude Maas branches off, near Dordrecht, farther down rejoining Nieuwe! In Bonn, where the Sieg as a city by the sedimentation of the mountains form elongated! War featured severe and almost continuous fighting in the modern Baden and Württemberg same types of rocks their.
2020 rhine and vosges mountains