2002. On the French side, the Grand Canal d'Alsace was dug, which carries a significant part of the river water, and all of the traffic. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. and smaller rivers and streams. During this time, the lower Rhine flowed roughly west through the Netherlands and extended to the southwest, through the English Channel and finally, to the Atlantic Ocean. During the French Revolutionary Wars, on 13 July 1794, the Vosges were the scene of the Battle of Trippstadt. The middle flow begins as Nederrijn, then changes into Lek, then joins the Noord, thereby forming Nieuwe Maas. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, which was adapted in Roman-era geography (1st century BC) as Greek Ῥῆνος (Rhēnos), Latin Rhenus. Around 2.5 million years ago (ending 11,600 years ago) was the geological period of the Ice Ages. From 1871 to 1918 the Vosges marked for the most part the border between Germany and France, due to the Franco-Prussian War. This view is typified by Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a long public inscription of Augustus, in which he boasts of his exploits; including, sending an expeditionary fleet north of the Rheinmouth, to Old Saxony and Jutland, which he claimed no Roman had ever done before. Several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally, generating the individual features of Mediterranean geography: Iberia pushed up the Pyrenees; Italy, the Alps, and Anatolia, moving west, the mountains of Greece and the islands. The Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. It was made navigable to the Swiss town of Rheineck. [note 1]. To the west, in France, these hills are known as the Vosges mountain range and in the east, in Germany, the hills comprise the Black Forest. The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory between the modern Baden and Württemberg. The error was discovered in 2010, and the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat confirms the length at 1,232 kilometres (766 miles). ALSACE; Likely related crossword puzzle clues. [20] The engineering of the Rhine was not without protest, farmers and fishermen had grave concerns about valuable fishing areas and farmland being lost. The northern Alps were then drained by the Danube. Most of the Rhine's current course was not under the ice during the last Ice Age; although, its source must still have been a glacier. Until the early 1980s, industry was a major source of water pollution. Meteorologically, as a consequence of the Foehn effect the difference between the eastern and western mean slopes of the range is very marked. The largest and southern main branch begins as Waal and continues as Boven Merwede ("Upper Merwede"), Beneden Merwede ("Lower Merwede"), Noord ("the North"), Nieuwe Maas ("New Meuse"), Het Scheur ("the Rip") and Nieuwe Waterweg ("New Waterway"). The Upper Rhine had been part of the areal of the late Hallstatt culture since the 6th century BC, and by the 1st century BC, the areal of the La Tène culture covered almost its entire length, forming a contact zone with the Jastorf culture, i.e. In southern Europe, the stage was set in the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, with the opening of the Tethys Ocean, between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates, between about 240 MBP and 220 MBP (million years before present). Such was the case during the Last Glacial Maximum, ca. But then, at the so-called Rheinbrech, the Rhine water abruptly falls into the depths because of the greater density of cold water. When such basins form, the thinning of the crust causes uplift immediately adjacent to the basin. The discharge of the Rhine is divided into three branches: the Waal (6/9 of total discharge), the Nederrijn – Lek (2/9 of total discharge) and the IJssel (1/9 of total discharge). The two original military districts of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior, came to influence the surrounding tribes, who later respected the distinction in their alliances and confederations. The Treaty of Versailles and this particular provision, in general, caused much resentment in Germany and is often cited as helping Adolf Hitler's rise to power. The southern half of the Upper Rhine forms the border between France (Alsace) and Germany (Baden-Württemberg). 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