The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was one of the first temples built in the city of Rome and was the largest in Italy at the time of its construction. 2. This one is in France. It is the highest and one of the best preserved. Print; Persia. It reached its greatest height during the Mongol Peace (c. 1260 -1368 CE), under the rule of the nomadic Mongols, West Africa traded with other parts of the Muslim world in a trans-Saharan network, Merchants from China, India, and Southeast Asia could trade with those from Arabia and East Africa via the Indian Ocean, Europe accessed goods from Asia and the Muslim world via the Mediterranean Sea, Thanks to these expanded networks, foreign merchants set up communities in cities along trade routes, thereby facilitating greater cultural exchange, Muslim merchants lived in the Indian Ocean region, Chinese merchants lived in Southeast Asia, and Jewish merchants lived in the Mediterranean region, Improved trade and communication networks encouraged the spread of religions, through conquest, missionaries, or cross-cultural exchange, Islam had spread across Arabia by the time of Muhammad's death (632 CE), and two subsequent caliphates, or political and religious dynasties, conquered further territory in North Africa, West Asia, Spain, and the Middle East by 1517 CE, Under the caliphates, all cultures were tolerated as long as they obeyed the rules of Islam, thus encouraging its spread, Despite fighting between the caliphates and eventual political decline, Islam provided a cultural bond between Islamic-controlled regions, After 900 CE, Islam spread to southern Europe, central and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan and east Africa through missionaries and trade, and Islamic traditions often mixed with local culture, Buddhism spread to southeast Asia and central Asia through missionaries, but it often adapted to local customs and mixed with other traditions, In east Asia, for example, Buddhism mixed with Confucianism to include ancestor worship and a focus on family, Christianity spread through missionaries as well, after the church split into two factions in 1054, The western church sponsored missionary campaigns in western Europe, while the eastern church spread to eastern Europe and Russia, Syncretism, or the combination of differing systems of belief, encouraged the further spread of Christianity as pagan traditions mixed with Christian beliefs. Identify and explain how ONE specific historical development prior to 600 BCE could be used to challenge the undermining of women. The collapse of the Han dynasty in China opened the door to the spread and appeal of Buddhism into China, since the Confucian authority was no longer centralized. After 900 CE, Islam spread to southern Europe, central and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan and east Africa through missionaries and trade, and Islamic traditions often mixed with local culture Buddhism spread to southeast Asia and central Asia through missionaries, but it often adapted to local customs and mixed with other traditions Amazing. In ancient China, the Era of Warring States gave rise to influential philosophies including Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. 1. The Gupta Empire (320 CE -520 CE) again united India, and ruled by allowing collaborations between local and regional rulers, rather than through one overarching ruler In the Roman Empire, Julius Caesar's successors cemented a centralized government that maintained the traditions of Rome's republic Social and Economic Dimensions of States and Empires: c. 600 BCE - 600 CE, Imperial societies grew and unified areas, Empires and states developed and refined new forms of imperial administration, Powerful rulers conquered massive territories and brought them under control using advanced military strategies and technologies, The Persian Empire (553 - 333 BCE) emerged when emperor Cyrus conquered land ranging from the Indus River to modern-day Turkey, and allowed captured peoples to maintain their culture, which encouraged loyalty, The Roman Empire transitioned from a republic (509 - 44 BCE) to an empire (31 BCE - 476 CE) by expanding through war, General Julius Caesar expanded the empire to its height, surrounding the Mediterranean, While classical Greece (480 - 323 BCE) functioned as a collection of independent city-states, occasionally the city-states unified against common enemies, Later, King Philip II conquered Greece using sophisticated military strategies, and his son Alexander conquered Persia and northwest India, This empire became known as a Hellenistic Empire (323 - 31 BCE), as it featured cultural traditions adapted from classical Greece, Rulers unified conquered territories into cohesive empires using a variety of strategies, including centralized government, unified culture, tolerance, and strict governance, China's rulers used a variety of cultural traditions to unite the empire following the Warring States Period, The Qin dynasty (221 - 207 BCE) drew on Legalism for its harsh, centralized rule, The Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE) learned from Qin mistakes, maintaining the centralized bureaucracy but using on Confucianism as a guiding philosophy, Under the Han, a Confucian-based imperial university prepared students to take civil service exams as an entrance into government jobs, In the Persian Empire, ruler Darius divided the empire into provinces, which were ruled by satraps. 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