Biochemistry: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins: protonation state of an amino acid (which depends on the pH of the environment and amino acid's intrinsic pI) direction of migration in electrophoresis • if protonated amino acid (cation) ---> cathode • if deprotonated amino acid (anion) -- … For queries, email learn@mcat-prep.com. proteins involved in apoptosis are associated with pathways for cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. arrest and DNA repair. If you purchase books from MCAT-prep.com during the COVID-19 crisis, our distributors and shipping companies are still providing home delivery but with an additional 1-2 day delay. Lymph, (lymph is important in fatty acid transport . The current MCAT regularly has questions which require previous knowledge of the structures, features (including changes in charge with pH), 3- and 1-letter abbreviations of the 20 common protein-generating amino acids, etc. You may also be interested in Gold Standard's free premium app: MCAT Biochemistry for iPhone, MCAT Biochemistry for Android. You can consider the following your MCAT Biochemistry cheat sheet (i.e. EXCEPT: A valid e-mail address is required in case you forget your password and for contacting our ddATP, ddCTP, ddGTP, or ddTTP), New strands of DNA are synthesized using PCR beginning at the primer and continuing on until a dideoxynucleotide (ddNTP) is inserted at random, This results in a mixture of DNA fragments with varying lengths that must be separated by gel electrophoresis and read one nucleotide at a time, Method of separating DNA fragments of differing lengths based on their size, DNA fragments are passed through an electrically-charged agarose gel, Since DNA is negatively charged, it moves towards the anode (= positive electrode), Shorter fragments move faster than the longer fragments and can be visualized as a banding pattern using autoradiography techniques, Method of transferring DNA fragments from the electrophoresis agarose gel onto filter paper where they are identified with probes, DNA is digested in a mixture with restriction endonucleases to cut out specific pieces of DNA, The DNA fragments are then subjected to gel electrophoresis, Separated fragments are bathed in an alkaline solution where they immediately begin to denature, Fragments are then blotted onto nitrocellulose paper and incubated with a specific probe whose location can be visualized with autoradiography, Method of detecting specific sequences of RNA by hybridization with cDNA, Method used to identify specific amino acid sequences in proteins, Proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis on an SDS-PAGE gel and detected using labeled antibodies specific to the protein or part of the protein, DNA microarrays (= DNA chip or biochip or "laboratory-on-a-chip"), Determine which genes are active or inactive in different cell types, Can be used to genotype multiple regions of a genome, Created by robotic machines that arrange small amounts of hundreds of thousands of gene sequences on a single microscope slide, Sequences can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that is used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA (also called antisense RNA) sample, Hybridization is usually observed and quantified by the detection of a fluorescent tag, Quantitative analysis techniques allow researchers to determine basic information about the expressed product (e.g. Quick guide on what is a plasma membrane, its different regions and solute processes. 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MCAT Biochemistry reference on exocytosis, endocytosis, biosignaling and receptor enzymes, MCAT Biochemistry guide on DNA recombination and sequencing, PCR and more, MCAT Biochemistry guide on gel electrophoresis, blotting techniques and more, Try out these free MCAT Biochemistry practice questions from MCAT-prep.com, AAMCKAPLANPRINCETON REVIEWEXAMKRACKERSMCAT-PREP.COMANKI, Choose from online and homestudy packages that combine top MCAT prep materials. Used for steroid hormones, bile, membrane fluidity, Nucleotides (also known as nucleoside phosphates), are composed of a 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and an inorganic phosphate (a glycosidic bond links the nitrogenous base to the sugar), are attached in sequence via phosphodiester bonds to form nucleic acids, form the sugar phosphate (negatively-charged) backbone of nucleic acids, are composed of a nitrogenous base and a 5-carbon sugar, are attached to an inorganic phosphate to form nucleotides. 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