The debate is ongoing on which type of health financing policy results in better or worse quality of healthcare services provided, and how to ensure allocated funds are used effectively, efficiently and equitably. , Health-related policy and its implementation is complex.  The policy process encompasses decisions made at a national or decentralized level (including funding decisions) that affect whether and how services are delivered. " Distinguished from both international health policy (agreements among sovereign states) and comparative health policy (analysis of health policy across states), global health policy institutions consist of the actors and norms that frame the global health response. Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society". Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights, ethics and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other group to adopt a specific policy. Government spending on health is essential for the accessibility and sustainability of healthcare services and programmes. Many governments and agencies include a health dimension in their foreign policy in order to achieve global health goals. ", "British, Canadian Experience Shows Folly of Socialized Medicine, Analyst Says. Other jurisdictions and non-governmental organizations draw on the principles of humanism in defining their health policies, asserting the same perceived obligation and enshrined right to health.  In recent years, the worldwide human rights organization Amnesty International has focused on health as a human right, addressing inadequate access to HIV drugs and women's sexual and reproductive rights including wide disparities in maternal mortality within and across countries. Emerging in response to a growing understanding and recognition of the many different factors that influence health, “.  According to the World Health Organization, an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future; it outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people. Many governments around the world have established universal health care, which takes the burden of healthcare expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial risk. Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. For example, in South Africa, whose population sets the record for HIV infections, previous government policy limiting funding and access for AIDS treatments met with strong controversy given its basis on a refusal to accept scientific evidence on the means of transmission. Promoting health in lower income countries has been seen as instrumental to achieve other goals on the global agenda, including:, Global health policy encompasses the global governance structures that create the policies underlying public health throughout the world. Examples of effective health policies include smoking bans, excise taxes on cigarettes and alcohol, seat belt laws, water fluoridation, and restaurant menu labeling. 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